HUKUM PENGOPERASIAN KAPAL NIRAWAK

Bela Awaliyah Agustina

Abstract


Teknologi terus berkembang hingga mampu menjamah setiap aspek kehidupan manusia. Salah kemajuan teknologi dalam bidang pelayaran saat ini adalah Kapal Tanpa Awak/Nirawak atau yang disebut juga dengan Marine Autonomous Surface Ships (MASS). Meski MASS telah dikembangkan dan digunakan oleh banyak Negara, sampai dengan saat ini belum memiliki regulasi konkret yang mengatur mengenai batasan dan aspek-aspek tertentu dalam kegiatan pengoperasiannya, termasuk UNCLOS sebagai pedoman utama hukum laut. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membahas mengenai instrumen hukum yang dapat dijadikan pedoman dalam pengoperasian MASS. Pada Tahun 2019, Henrik Ringbom dalam tulisannya yang berjudul Regulating Autonomous Ships—Concepts, Challenges and Precedents dalam Jurnal Ocean Development & International Law, membahas mengenai pengaturan MASS yang berfokus pada konsep, tantangan, dan preseden hukum MASS. Berbeda dengan penelitian sebelumnya, penelitian ini membahas mengenai panduan hukum yang bisa digunakan dalam pengoperasian MASS. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode hukum normatif dengan pendekatan perundang-undangan yang digabungkan dengan pendekatan konsep dan sifat penelitian eksploratif yang fokus pada hukum MASS. Hasil dari penelitian ini adalah Pedoman Sementara yang ditetapkan oleh IMO Nomor: MSC.1/Circ.1604 Tahun 2019 menjadi panduan pengoperasian MASS selama regulasi formal belum diterbitkan, dengan tetap mengikuti ketentuan dalam konvensi-konvensi internasional terkait. Diharapkan penelitian ini akan dapat memberikan gambaran yang lebih jelas mengenai panduan dalam pengoperasian MASS sebelum adanya aturan khusus.

Technology continues to develop to be able to touch every aspect of human life. One of the technological advances in today’s shipping field is Unmanned Ships, also known as Marine Autonomous Surface Ships (MASS). Although MASS has been developed and used by many countries, up to now, there is no concrete regulation that regulates certain limits and aspects of its operational activities, including UNCLOS as the main guideline for the law of the sea. This study aims to discuss legal instruments that can be used as guidelines in the operation of MASS. In 2019, Henrik Ringbom, in his writing entitled Regulating Autonomous Ships—Concepts, Challenges, and Precedents in the Journal of Ocean Development & International Law, discussed the MASS regulation focusing on the concepts, challenges, and legal precedents of MASS. In contrast to previous research, this study discusses legal guidelines used in the MASS operation. This study uses a normative legal method with a statutory approach combined with a conceptual approach and exploratory research that focuses on MASS law. The results of this research are the Provisional Guidelines set by IMO Number: MSC.1/Circ.1604 Year 2019 to guide the operation of MASS as long as formal regulations have not been issued while still following the provisions of related international conventions. It is hoped that this research will provide a clearer picture of the guidelines in the operation of MASS before the existence of special rules.


Keywords


MASS; Kapal; IMO; MASS; Ship; IMO

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References


Peraturan Perundangan-undangan:

United Nations Convention on The Law of the Sea 1982 (UNCLOS).

Interim Guidelines for Mass Trials dari The Maritime Safety Committee (MSC), sesi ke 101, Juni 2019 Number: MSC.1/Circ.1604.

The International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea 1972 (COLREG).

Maritime Labour Convention 2016 (MLC).

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.30742/perspektif.v26i2.798

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